In an open heart bypass procedure, surgeons need to cut the chest open to access to the heart. This creates a large scar and requires a lengthy recovery period.
An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital heart defect where there is a hole in the atrial septum, the wall which separates the right and left atria.
Mini–AVR stands for minimally invasive aortic valve replacement with minimal incision and minimal trauma.
Heart bypass surgery creates a new route, called a bypass, for blood and oxygen to reach your heart.
A ventricular septal defect is an opening in the ventricular septum, or dividing wall between the two lower chambers of the heart known as the right and left ventricles.